Orissa Konark Temple
|Location||Eastern Coast of Orissa, India|
|Built by||King Narasimhadeva I|
|Built in||1250 AD|
|Famous for||Sun Temple and UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Also known as||Sun Temple, Konark Sun Temple|
|Primary deity||Surya (sun god)|
|Important festivals||Chandrabhaga Mela, Konark Dance Festival|
|Attraction||Konark Dance Festival, gigantic sculptures|
The Konark Temple is the Sun temple of 13th century that is also famous as Black Pagoda situated in Konark of Orissa state of India. It was built by the king King Narasimhadeva I with corroded and wrinkled ferruginous brickwork. He ruled from 1238 to 1250 CE and belonged to East Ganga Dynasty. This temple is being considered as the remarkable illustration of the architecture of Orissa belonging to the Ganga dynasty. This temple is the The temple is most well-known temples of India and has the rank as the site of World Heritage. This temple is also enlisted among the 7 Indian Wonders. It is a legend that this temple was built by Samba who was the Lord Krishna’s son. Due to the curse of his father Sambha was badly affected by leprosy. After the expiry of twelve sacrament years, Surya curved him and due to this in the honor of Sun God, this temple was being built by Sambha as wonder Konark temple.
The today’s big The large configuration that is visible is actually mantapa of mandap. Out of the prime tower that is situated in the front, one can only see the remains. The height of this tower was about 200 feet or 60 metres that is the highest out of the other Indian Temples.
The most famous theory regarding the root of fall of the Konark temple is associated with kalapahad, who was general of Bengal Sultan Sulaiman Khan Karrani. According to the records or accounts it is revealed that he must be the Hindu Kayastha official who was transformed to Islam. According to the details given the Shaikh Kabir Batini, Afsanah-i-Shahan, Kalapahad was the Afghan Batini. According to prehistoric details of the Orissa state it was overwhelmed by Kalapahad in 1508. Various Hindu temples were destroyed by him in Orissa including Konark temple. In the year 1568, attack of the Kalapahad was described through the Madala Panji of Puri Jagannath temple. In Orissa, he destroyed various images in the temples of Hindu together with Konark temple. He trying to displace the Arch stone as there was 20 to 25 feet stone walls, but still tried to collapse the tower. The Konark temple was also destroyed by him including various Hindu images. As because of the falling of stones from the top of the temple and displaced Dadhinauti, the Mukasala roof destroyed and the tower was collapsed.
In the year 1568, Muslims take over the charge of Muslims. Hindu temples were damaged by the continuous efforts. The image of Lord Jagannath was kept by the Pandas of Puri from the Srimandir temple to a secret place so that to secure the sanctity of the temple of Puri. Same to that, diety of the temple of Sun took by the Pandas of Konark and for long years they buried that under the sand. Later on the image was removed and that was kept in the Indra temple at the Puri Jagannath compound. As of the beliefs, the image of Puri of temple of Konark is still to be discovered. As according to the other views, the only diety of the Sun temple of Konark is the Sun image that is present in the Delhi National Museum.
After the sacred image removed from the temple, the worship of the Sun in the temple of Konark ended. So the pilgrimages ends to Konark after this happened. As because of the attack of the pirates, the Konark at the port was closed. Due the commercial activities, this Konark city seemed very glorious because of the worship of Sun, but as the activities were ended, this Konark temple dumped at the forest for many years and turned into desert.
The image of the sun was kept away by the Raja Narsimha Dev, a king of Khurda, who is the son of Purusottam Dev to the Puri in the year 1626 with other two deities of Sun and Moon. These deities along with the image of Sun is now present in the Puri Jagannath temple compound.
According to the said lines, a Navagraha Paata, which is a big stone block was present facing to the Mukhasala. This block was later on removed by the King of Khurda. Various portions of Puri temple was made by the stones of the Konark that was taken by the King. Puri’s temple wall was constructed with the stones taken from the temple of Konark during the reign of Marathas.
Konark temple excluding all the temples of the Nata Mandira also named Dancing Hall was in the basic form for a longer time but later on it was destroyed intentionally as it represents the administration of the Marathas.
The Aruna Khamba of the Konark was kept away by the Maratha Sadhu in the year 1779 and that was then later on placed in front of the Gate of Lion in the temple of Puri Jagannath. Later on, this Konark temple was converted into forest and all its glory was lost at the end of 18th century. This temple was then later on filled with the sand, wild animals, turned into forest, and became devoid of people, and also turned into the pirate shelter. According to the said wordings, even during the daylight, local people fear to go to the Konark.
This temple took the Surya chariot form that is situated on the shoreline just about 3 km away from the sea and is manufactured with the carving of stone. The 12 pairs of decorated wheels with the seven chariot of God with 7 horses were made on this complex with the decorated wheels. The main attraction of the temple is the large carved wheels at its base. The sundials were served as the wheels spokes and shadows represent the particular day time. About the height of 30 meter, the roof pyramid soars. As same to the Khajuraho temple, this temple also had erotic sculptures.
This temple also showed a picture of an elephant that was crushed by the two giant lions at the entrance of the temple. This elephant is situated on the human body’s top. The royal walk of the Sun God was represented by this temple. The Nata Mandir is situated at the temple’s entrance. To pay the homage to Sun God, the dancers of temple performed the dance at this Nata Mandir. There were lots of geometric and floral sculptures all over the temple. Now at the present time, Archaeological Survey of India take over the charge of the Sun temple museum in which the sculptures of this temple were preserved. Language of man was surpassed by the language of stone as written by the poet Rabindranath Tagore.
In the 13th century, this temple of Sun was built. It represents the huge chariot of the God Sun having 12 pairs of wheels that is moved by the seven horses. This temple of Konark is famous as because of its design that represents the faultless proportions giving architectural support with great dimensions. This temple is made with various miniatures that represents its monumental look and each part of the temple is designed very graceful and beautifully. There is a fascinating matter of subject. Various images are designed in this temple including lovers, dancers, deities, human musicians, celestial, military battle, and hunts range. These are merged with animals and birds like various lively elephants were moved on the temples base along with the attractive geometrical and botanical designs on this temple with mythological creatures. The quality of Orissan art as popular jewel makes this temple more attractive with the sculptures.
On the second porch structure of the temples is basically now erotic as founded. This sculpture showed the lyrical movement and tenderness of the nature as if view by someone. This view of whole life showed on the temple of Konark, which includes various divine personages, animals, and birds showed the carnival of life on this sculpture that represents the reality. This become popular in the Orissa because of this. As compared to the other temples, Konark temple is the superior one as because of the human figures and animals, with scroll work and traceries present on this.
The Kalinga school of Indian temple belongs with the temple of Sun. The projections were elaborated with the Audience hall that is constructed along the main Sanctum. There is fall of the main Sanctum due to presiding deity. Only few portions of Dining hall and Dancing halls were present, but the Audience hall is fully survived as the time passes. The Temple compound measures 857 ft (261 m) by 540 ft (160 m). The ease west direction of the temple showed its alignment. There were natural surroundings around the temple including casuarinas plants, eel grows on the soil that is sandy, with mahogany trees.
Fall of Konark
As the early death of the Konark temple’s builder who is the King Narasimha Dev, the temple’s construction left in the midway. So the structure that left incomplete was ruined as the time passes, but there is no view in support of this. All the records were derived from the copper plates of 1278 A.D., from Madala Panji of Jagannath temple, and till the year 1282 with King Langula Narasimha Dev. The Konark temple constructed completely from 1253 to 1260 A.D. according to the various historians. So as the myths that the temple is collapsed due to incomplete construction is failed as argument.
After the suicide of Dharmapada after the crowning stone placed, sanctity of the temple got lost and the Asuva element was rejected according to the Dharmapada. As according to the belief and historian’s records, worship of the Sun God has been held in this temple for over many years. So this fact is not found in the history and so not accepted.
Curse Of Sumanyu
A story was narrated by the Sri Radhanath Ray, a great poet of Orissa, in Chandrabhaga, the Kavya of the poet about the main reason for the temple fall. As the daughter Chandrabhaga of Sumanyu Risi was misbehaved by the Sun God so he was cursed by him as the Chandrabhaga committed suicide due to this. So due to this reason, the Sun God temple collapsed. But this does not represent the historical view about this story.
The outer portion and inner portion of this temple was covered with the sand as the temple construction progresses. The wall of temple fell down as because of the clearance of sand from outer and inner portion after the temple’s completion due to the improper pressure. As the Sun God’s existence is found in the temple, various scholars were not agreed with this fact. According to them, it is also not true that the construction of the temple was followed by this procedure. As according to the documented history, the Sun god is worshiped in this temple for a long period of time.
The temple was fell due to earthquake as spoken by various scholars. As said, such a large structure falls just because of earthquake is not acceptable at this moment.
The occurrence of earthquake is not supported by any roof present. At any of direction, there is no foundation of the temple suppression. It is still a question in the area of Konark that any kind of earthquake is the reason behind the fall of the Sun temple. As the story of the Ramachandi, Dharmapada, and Bisu Maharana was remembered by the people so the occurrence of temple was also remembered. There is no clue behind this statement.
This argument is not accepted that the thunderstruck is the reason behind the fall of the temple.This is not possible as the wall of the temples were as thick measured 20 to 25 feet of thickness.
This temple falls because of the weak structure according to the statement. As the temple become much stronger as situated on the gorge of the river. So at any part, there is no sinking sign. So there is not enough ground of foundation of this argument.
As due to the magnetic effect of the load stone above the Sun temple, the Sun temple damaged due to the passing of vessels in the sea of Konark. It is also believed that as the load stone above the Sun temple creates the magnetic effect so the ships compass direction was not working properly and the captain of the ships faces so much trouble for directing the ships in the proper direction. Due to this,the load stone was kept away from the temple by the Muslim voyagers to save the shipping. The central stone of the temple makes the balance as the working of the load stone. So the walls of the temple fell down due to the temple walls displaced down with a period of time. But there is no proof or record of such kind of statement that the load stone has been existed above the roof of the temple.
Just above the porch of the temple, there was an existence of the flying lion as said by some of the scholars. This lion image is now present as the broken image just in three places on the ground. The wall of the temple got destroyed due to the presence of the heavy block on the temple’s top. As came to conclusion, the above said argument should have to be reviewed.
Hasty Completion Of The Temple
According to the story of the Dharmapad, the workers had been ordered by the King Narasimha Dev to complete the temple with in a specific period of time, otherwise the sculpture workers got punished to death if they failed to complete the construction of the temple in a given period of time. Instead of the Sri Samantaray, the king placed another sculpture instead of Sri Sibei Samantaray who was unable to complete the work given by the king. This Sutradhar rapidly finished his work in a given time, but still the Kalas of the temple is unable to be placed by him.Finally, a 12 year old boy set up the Kalasa.So the things were went wrong as because of the impracticable orders done by the king. The crown of the stone was not placed as proper according to the given plan due to the weak placement. As because of the changing plan of the Sutradhar and different things done by the kin, the temple’s crown portion was not paced at the lower part. So in a very short period of time, the wall of the temple got collapsed.
How to Reach
About 65 km far, the near one airport is Bhubaneswar. There are flights of Indian Airlines from the major cities like Mumbari, Raipur, Visakhapatnam, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Hyderabad.
Bhubaneswar and Puri are the railheads that were most near one. Bhubaneswar via Pipili is 65 km and from Puri, it is 35 km on the road by marine drive.
The roads connected the Konark for all weather type goods.From Bhubaneswar and Puri, there is bus service available regularly. There is also transport of taxis and private bus available from Puri and Bhubaneswar.
To reach the Konark temple, there were auto rickshaws and cycle rickshaws as an internal transport.
The Navagraha slab is a large stone that is contained of nine planetary Gods. Navagraha use showed the measurement for the temple’s safety that was shown in the temples of the Orissa mostly. Just above the 18 feet, there was a large slab named Navagraha slab on the Sun temple at the front of Mukhsala. With a height of 3'.9'' (1.43 m), 19'.10'' (6.045 m) length, and 4'.9'' (1.45 m) breadth, this stone is built with the chlorite. The weight of this stone is 26.27 tons.
The attributes were not attended as the images were carved out. The few were only in group and many were in an alike form. Some images involved the images with pointed crowns on the lotus having Kamandalu and rosary in the hands, otherwise the Puranas described the following facts:
- With holding the two lotuses in hands, the vehicle of Surya rides with the help of seven horses.
- With moon discs on the right and left hands of Chandra, swan was ride by the Chandra (Moon).
- With the Kattara in the left and right hand holding the various heads of humans, Mangala (Mars) as the warlord is on the vehicle of goat showing the devouring act.
- Sitting on the lotus, Budha (Mercury) is holding the bow and arrow in his both hands right and left.
- The higher God is the Vrihaspati (Jupitor) who sits on the lotus holding the Kamandalu and rosary in both his hands with the beard flowing has to be sit on the skull or frog as not on lotus.
- Ashuras (demons) priest is named as Sukra (Venus). As iron is perfectly showed except the one eye blindness.
- As not sitting on the lotus, the Sani (Saturn) sits on the tortoise ride holding the rod in the hands.
- Only the upper half portion of body was shown of Rahu (Ascending god). To shown him as a monster, he was projecting with two canine teeth of his upper jaw with the sun and moon as a aspect of the fierce. On the one hand, he is holding and Sun and on the other, he is holding moon.
- The last one in the group is Ketu (Descending node). The upper portion of the Ketu is as similar to others, but the lower portion is made of coiling serpent. In one hand, the holds the snake noose and on the other hand he is having sword
Archeological Museum of Konark
As to the north region of the Sun temple, there was an Archaeological Museum of Konark, which has various collection of sculptures and ancient relics of architecture that envelope the Sun temple. These collections were now shifted to the latest building of museum in the year 1968.
The treasure was housed by the four galleries.
With the Gods and Goddesses sculptures, there were 62 antiquities in the first gallery house of the mythology of Hindus. There were various images of God Surya, marriages, and Lord Vishnu’s various incarnations. There were total of 108 antiques on the gallery’s second wall that includes head of crocodile with the animals and plants images on the stones.
There were 45 antiquities with the maven craftsmanship in the third gallery that shows the architecture pinnacle of that time. In the third gallery, all other images of battles pictures with the Surya Narayana images and Gaja-Vyala images were shown. The remaining 45 artefacts were shown in the fourth gallery. Other images shown were swans having garlands, lion roars, elephant trunk, dance enjoyed by a king, and couples that were erotic.There were architecture of Orissa and various other cities images in the museum corridors at the side of the galleries.
During the excavation in the temple of Sun, there were total of about 260 antiquities in the four galleries of the museum.
Timings of the opening and closing of this museum of Konark is about 10:00 am to 5:00 pm. On the Friday, the museum remained closed.
In the February month, there held a most famous Magha Saptami also known as Chandrabhaga Mela in which various pilgrims from the different areas of the India came and visiting this holy place.From December first to 5th, there was a dance festival that is famous as Konark dance festival each year at the Sun Temple Auditorium that is open air.
Timings and other Important Information
This temple opened at the sunrise and sunset,
There were SAARC visitors and Indian citizens at per head 10 Rs. (Nepal, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, and Pakistan) with BIMSTEC Countries (Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Bhutan).
Others: US $ 5 or Rs. 250/- per head
(children up to 15 years free)
Opening Hours : 10.00 am to 5.00 pm
Closed on – Friday
Entrance Fee : Rs. 5/- per head
(Children up to 15 years free)
Weather and Time to Visit
The weather of the Konark is very soothing and the tourists experience this awesome weather visiting here. There is mix weather in the Konark that tourists enjoys consists of winters, rainfall, and summers.
Due to not much heating effect and only maximum temperature of 42 degrees, the summers in the Konark were not too hot. The temperature in the winters is only 25 degrees maximum and 8 degrees minimum, so the season of winter is more enjoyed by the tourists.
Due to different types of weather changes in the Konark, the days were more enjoyable in the Konark with the sea influence with it.
As due to the too hot summer that was not bearable, the perfect time to reach the Konark is the months of October to March when there is a cool weather.
Toshali Sands Resort, Puri
For the best location where one can enjoy both decorations and greenery, the best location is the Toshali sands resort at the Puri. There will be no other resort that is more perfect instead of this one. There were various facilities that this resort offers like villas and cottages.This hotel came under the charge of Department of Tourism in India.
Ethnic Village Resort Konark,
Marine Drive, Puri-752002 (Orissa)
06752-250571 to 74
Mob : 09937904651
The Panthanivas hotel is the best option if one can visit the Orissa. This hotel includes various facilities that offered a lot to visitors. This hotel completes the every need of the tourist or visitor in every mean. This hotel offered a comfortable stay for the visitors. All the resort and cottages at this area were give the look of bungalow and there were beautiful lawns that shows the lifestyle of this resort.
Konark, Puri - 752111
email: email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org